Introduction to Drug Addiction
Drug addiction is considered as a chronic disease that is characterized by compulsive, or irrepressible, drug seeking and consumption despite harmful results and transformation in the brain, that can be enduring and life-threatening. These variations in the brain can lead to the harmful behaviours seen in people who consume drugs daily. Drug addiction is considered as a deteriorating disease. Relapse can be explained as the return to drug consumption again after an attempt to stop. The path to drug addiction starts with the intended act of taking drugs. But with time, an individual’s ability to decide not to consume drug becomes bargained. Seeking and taking the drug becomes habitual. This is mostly due to the effects of longstanding drug exposure on brain function. Addiction influences the parts of the brain that helps in reward and motivation, learning and memory, and control over the behaviour. In this regard, addiction is also believed to be the disease that impacts both the brain and behaviour of a person.
Principles of Effective Treatment
It is important to understand that addiction is a complicated but treatable disease that influences brain function and behaviour. Based on scientific research since the mid-1970s, the following core principles should form the foundation of any effective treatment program:
- It should be made very clear that no single treatment is appropriate for everyone.
- Individuals are required to have immediate access to the treatment.
- Effective treatment helps in addressing all of the needs of the patients, not just drug consumption.
- Long-lasting treatments of drug addict could have severe results.
- Counselling and other behavioural therapies are the commonly used methods of treatment.
- Medications are usually considered as an important part of treatment, mainly when they are interlinked with the behavioural therapies.
- Treatment plans need to be reviewed regularly and should be changed keeping in view the patient’s changing needs.
- It is essential that treatment address other possible mental disorders too.
- Medically aided detoxification is considered as the primary stage of treatment.
- Treatment doesn’t need to be voluntary to be influential.
- Use of a drug during treatment needs to be monitored consistently.
- Treatment programmers are required to examine the patients for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis, and other infectious diseases.
- Patients should be taught about steps they can take to mitigate the risk of their disorders.
Principles of drug uptake and distribution
Factors that explain the movement of drugs within the body is called pharmacokinetics, which incorporates the consumption, spreading, localization in tissues, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs. The study that helps in understanding the actions of the drugs and their impacts throughout various parts of the body is called pharmacodynamics. Before the drugs can be influential, it must be consumed and distributed throughout the entire body. Drugs that are in-taken orally may be absorbed by the intestines at different rates, some being absorbed immediately, while some more gradually. Even immediate consumed drugs can be arranged in manners that sluggish the degree of absorption and allow them to remain effective for 12 hours or more than that. Drugs administered either intravenously or intramuscularly bypass issues of absorption, but the calculation of quantity can be more critical.
Individuals respond differently to a similar drug. Adult persons, because of lessening kidney and liver function, may metabolize and defaecate drugs more slowly. Due to such factors, adults frequently needs fewer quantities of medication than youngers needs. Some of the additional factors that impact the individual’s response to drugs are the existence of the disease, degree of nutrition or malnutrition, genetics, and the existence of other drugs in the body. In addition to that, just as the pain threshold differs among individuals, so does the reaction to drugs. Some people are in the need of higher-than-average doses while some being very subtle to drugs, cannot stand even average doses, and they experience aftermaths immediately after the first dose.
Infants and children may have various rates of consumption than adult people because bowel motility is unequal or gastric acidity is reduced. Drug distribution may be in variation in some people, such as youngsters who have little fatty tissue and a comparatively large proportion of body water. Metabolic rates, which affect pharmacokinetics, are much greater during childhood. The dosages of drugs for infants are normally calculated based on weight or the basis of body surface area. If any drug has an extensive margin of safety, it may be given as a portion of the adult dose based on age, but the great variation in size among children of the same age complexes this calculation. Children are not considered as small adults therefore drug consumption amounts may be quite variable than they are for grownups.
Problems Associated with Drug
The genuine eight problems associated with the drugs addiction are:
Unnecessary drug therapy
This could take place when the patient has been placed on numerous medications for their condition and the drug is simply not required.
This could happen when a patient is provided with the medication that does not treat the patient’s condition. For example, a heart medication to cure an infection.
Dose too low
This could take place when a patient is given medication that is effective enough to get an advantage or therapeutic impacts.
Dose too high
This could happen when a patient is given medication that is too powerful and results in causing harmful effects or is simply not needed.
Adverse drug reaction
This could take place when a patient results in an allergic response to a certain medication.
This could occur when a patient decides not to or forgets to take a medication.
Needs additional drug therapy
This could happen when a patient requires more medication to treat with the condition.
Drug therapy can be explained as a process that is used to treat disease. In this treatment, drugs cooperate with the receptors or enzymes in cells to encourage healthy functioning and decrease or cure disease. The process is also known as pharmacotherapy. Pharmacotherapy is the treatment of an illness with the administration of drugs. Basically, it is believed to be part of the greater category of therapy. Some pharmacists are proficient in pharmacotherapy and are accountable for guaranteeing the harmless, suitable, and economical use of medicines. The services required to function as a pharmacist needs intense information, training and experience in biomedical, pharmaceutical and clinical sciences.